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PLEASE FILL OUT TEMPLATE THAT IS ATTACHED!!
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science media item (NY times article) and primary research article have been attached below
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1) Why a Century-Old Vaccine Offers New Hope Against Pathogens
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The B.C.G. tuberculosis vaccine may protect against Covid-19 and other infections by broadly bolstering the immune system.
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3) https://www.nytimes.com/2022/08/16/health/bcg-vaccine-diabetes-covid.html?searchResultPosition=2
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4) https://www.cell.com/cell-reports-medicine/fulltext/S2666-3791(22)00271-3#relatedArticles
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https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2022.100728

Summarize each of the seven roles that parents or guardians play in the lives of their children at home and at school.

This week you will begin developing your Children, Families, and Communities Guidebook. More specifically, you will be completing the Parenting Roles section. This week’s readings include the American College of Pediatricians (2013) position statement on the rights, roles, and responsibilities of parents. This resource presents seven distinct roles that families play in modern day parenting. The family’s role often has a direct impact on the developing child, as well as those to who educate them. It is important that early childhood professionals are knowledgeable of various parenting styles so that they can best support children’s development, along with supporting parental growth and learning.
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Guidebook Setup: You may choose one of the tools below to create your Children, Families, and Communities Guidebook, utilizing a text-based guidebook.
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Select one tool that you will use and add to each week to create your guidebook:
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Text-Based Guidebook: MS Word Document or .pdf, including text and images.
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Guidebook Title Page: Your Guidebook title page will help create a professional and knowledgeable image of who you are as an expert in family and community partnerships. Please include your name, title of your guidebook, and at least one relevant visual.
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Guidebook Parenting Roles Section: For this section, you are going to create a Parenting Roles newsletter that you can share with the families in your care. Create a one to two page newsletter that summarizes the seven roles that a parent or guardian plays in a child’s life at school and at home. Explain the potential positive and negative implications of the parental role. Finally, recommend one helpful resource that supports collaborative family relationships between the early childhood professional, parents or guardians, and the child.
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Content Expectations:
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Children, Families, and Communities Guidebook Title page: Set up your Children, Families, and Communities Guidebook with a title page, including your name, title of your guidebook, and at least one relevant visual.
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Parenting Roles Newsletter: Using Chapter 3 from the Gestwicki text as a guide for the seven parenting roles, create a newsletter that includes the following:
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1. Summarize each of the seven roles that parents or guardians play in the lives of their children at home and at school.
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2. Explain how each of the seven roles can directly impact children at home and at school, both positively and negatively.
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3. Recommend at least one resource that a family might use to learn about an aspect of child development or parenting. Please include an APA citation, summary of the resource, and a rationale of how it supports positive development.
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Writing and Formatting Expectations:
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Newsletter Appearance: Newsletter is well organized (i.e. formatted with easily read font, appealing colors, has a professional appearance, and includes a logical organization of the content).
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Organization: Demonstrates logical progression of ideas.
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Syntax and Mechanics: Writing displays meticulous comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling, grammar, and punctuation.
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APA Formatting: Newsletter is formatted properly and all sources are cited and referenced in APA style. (I HAVE Copy and Paste The 7 PARENTING ROLES BELOW TO HELP WITH THIS ASSIGNMENT)
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1. The Parent as Nurturer
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The nurturing Encouraging, supporting, caring, nourishing. role encompasses all the affectionate care, attention, and protection that young children need to grow and thrive. This implies caring for the physical needs of children before and after birth, but perhaps the greatest needs for healthy development are emotional support and caring. Being a nurturer is the parent’s primary role in providing a psychological environment of warm, emotional interaction in which the child can thrive.
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2. The Parent in Adult Relationships
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Parents are people first, and there is evidence that those who are fulfilled and contented as individuals are better able to function effectively as parents than those who are disappointed in their personal lives. It is evident that the support one parent gives to the other facilitates the development of the parenting role as well as optimizing conditions for nurturing the child. Forty-eight percent of mothers report that their spouse or partner is the primary source for emotional support for parenting. Although the primary adult relationship may be with a marriage partner or cohabiting adult, the adult’s life may be crisscrossed with a network of adult relationships—parents, friends, and former spouses. In fact, many parents also help arrange for their own parents’ health or living conditions and must make complicated arrangements with former spouses to share custody and negotiate financial matters. The relationship with one’s child is an extremely important relationship, but it begins in the context of relationships with other adults.
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3. The Parent as an Individual
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Americans have come to value the development of the individual person. We are now aware that this personal development is a lifelong process. Parents concerned with nurturing their children’s development are also encountering growth in their own lives.
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It is relevant for teachers to consider how Erikson’s theory examines the psychosocial tasks of adulthood that must be resolved. Many young parents are preoccupied with issues of identity. Erikson speaks of this as the fifth stage, beginning in adolescence. With the prolonging of education and financial dependence on parents and with the confusing multiplicity of roles, careers, and lifestyles from which to select, many identity issues are still being actively worked on in young adulthood.
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4. The Parent as Worker
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The stage in the life cycle when parenting usually occurs is a time of concern with being productive. Most adults find their means to this goal in one or both of the two channels of parenting and work. However, the two are often in competition with each other, as parents try to navigate work and family life and try to do both well.
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About two-thirds of mothers with children younger than age six are currently employed outside the home; nearly 80 percent of mothers of school-aged children are working—41 percent of them full time.
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5. The Parent as Consumer
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With inflation rates that increase every year, the real buying power of modern families continues to decline. Economic survival with the multiple material demands and expectations of our time has been a major factor in establishing the two-working-parent family structure.
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A good deal of the family income is devoted to rearing children. Children at one time were considered to be an economic asset—more available workers in a rural, self-sufficient family—but must now be considered economic liabilities. Recent statistics show it costs well over $250,000—depending on the family’s income—to raise a child, with a whopping $32,000 spent in just the first two years.
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6. The Parent as Community Member
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With the increasing complexity of modern life, a growing number of family functions have been taken over by community institutions and organizations: education by the school system and recreation and entertainment by the Y and other clubs as well as the church, which has often expanded its purely religious function. There are as many organizations as there are interests in any given community. The community itself has become more highly structured as groups of people coming together have dictated more rules, legislation, and decision making—public and private.
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7. The Parent as Educator
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Perhaps the role for which parents feel most unprepared is the role of educator, used here to mean guiding and stimulating the child’s development and teaching the skills and knowledge that children need to eventually become effective adults in society. Nevertheless, families teach their children from the time they are babies and continue to teach them what they consider important throughout their life in the home.

Can only be 500 words

Can only be 500 words
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Direction:
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Read chapters two and three of the textbook by Esmail et al (2017). On page 23 (Esmail et al 2017, p.23), Ann E. Lopez’s noted that:
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Parents from diverse communities are demanding that schools become more responsive to the educational needs of their children (Lopez, 2014). According to Gay (2010), schools need to become more interesting, engaging, and responsive to ethnically diverse students. This will not happen by chance. It requires focused action by educational leaders, continuous reflection and examination of their practices to unconditionally value the students they serve (Kea, Trent, & Davis, 2002; Lopez, 2011).
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Task 1 (Chapter 2): Discuss the authors’ position above regarding schools becoming responsive to the educational needs of children. Do you agree or disagree with the above position? Give at least two (2) research/data-supported facts/reasons/examples in support of your position.
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Task 2 (Chapter 3): Discuss the role of your district or building-level leader in implementing school wide “Restorative Justice and Relational Pedagogy”. Give at least 3 specific examples of what the leader can or should do.
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Limit your discussion to 500 words.

There are differences between cardiovascular, heart and coronary heart disease.

In this module, you have been exploring the cardiovascular system. The three terms that are often used interchangeably. There are differences between cardiovascular, heart and coronary heart disease. In this forum, explain the three terms and discuss the differences of the three terms. Your initial post is required to include a minimum of 100 words and include references used to explain the three terms

How did this article contribute to your understanding about modern latin america?

REPORT OF THE AMERICAN REVIEW ASSESSMENT PLEASE SUBMIT YOUR REPORTS THROUGH CANVAS IN EITHER OF THE FOLLOWING FORMATS: DOC, DOCX OR PDF (IF YOU ARE USING GOOGLE DOCS OR APPLE PAGES TO COMPOSE YOUR REVIEW, PLEASE BE SURE TO CONVERT YOUR PAPER TO DOCX OR PDF BEFORE SUBMITTING IT). LATE PAPERS WILL BE ACCEPTED FOR EACH SUBMISSION, BUT ONLY FOR ONE WEEK AFTER THE ASSIGNED DUE DATES AND WILL BE ASSESSED A FULL GRADE DEDUCTION. PLEASE USE BOTH A TITLE PAGE AND A WORKS CITED PAGE (NEITHER OF THESE PAGES COUNT TOWARD YOUR 3-4 PAGES OF TEXT). THESE 3 REPORTS WILL COUNT AS A COMBINED 30% TOWARD YOUR FINAL GRADE. IN YOUR WORKS CITED PAGE, COMPOSE YOUR ARTICLE ENTRY IN A FORMAT LIKE THIS:
EMILIO GODOY, “MEXICO BANS GLYSOPHATE BUT TOLERATES OTHER AGROCHEMICALS,” NACLA REPORT ON THE AMERICAS WEBSITE (JANUARY 28, 2021).IN TERMS OF THE CONTENT OF EACH REPORT, I AM LOOKING FOR TWO MAIN POINTS OF DISCUSSION. FIRST, YOU SHOULD DEVOTE THE FIRST HALF OF THE REPORT TO A SUMMARY OF THE MAIN POINTS IN THE ARTICLE THAT YOU SELECTED. TO HELP YOU TO ADDRESS THIS ISSUE, CONSIDER SOME OF THESE QUESTIONS: WHAT IS THE MAIN ISSUE BEING DISCUSSED? (I.E. IMMIGRATION, ELECTIONS, EDUCATION, ENVIRONMENT, WOMEN’S ISSUES, CRIME, ETC.) WHO ARE THE MAIN PERSONALITIES MENTIONED IN THE ARTICLE? (I.E. MEXICAN PRESIDENT ANDRÉS MANUEL LÓPEZ OBRADOR, COLOMBIAN PRESIDENT GUSTAVO PETRO, SECRETARY OF STATE ANTHONY BLINKEN, PRESIDENT BIDEN, VICE-PRESIDENT HARRIS, FORMER PRESIDENT TRUMP, ETC.) HOW DOES THE ISSUE AFFECT THE PEOPLE OF THE COUNTRY MENTIONED IN THE ARTICLE? DOES THE ISSUE HAVE ANY CONNECTION WITH UNITED STATES INTERESTS? WHAT DO YOU THINK COULD BE THE BEST SOLUTION TO RESOLVE THIS PROBLEM?AND FOR THE SECOND POINT OF DISCUSSION, PLEASE ANALYZE THE ARTICLE THAT YOU SELECTED AND PRESENT YOUR POINT OF VIEW ON THE STORY. FOR EXAMPLE, HOW DO YOU FEEL ABOUT THE STORY? HOW DID THIS ARTICLE CONTRIBUTE TO YOUR UNDERSTANDING ABOUT MODERN LATIN AMERICA? AND WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT THE AUTHOR’S PERSPECTIVE ON THE ARTICLE? HOW DOES THIS TOPIC RELATE TO CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL, ECONOMIC OR CULTURAL THEMES IN THE UNITED STATES TODAY?
HERE IS A LIST OF ARTICLES FROM THE NACLA WEBSITE PERTAINING TO REGIONS FOR YOUR FIRST DUE DATE. THE DATES LISTED IN PARENTHESIS CORRESPOND TO THE PUBLICATION DATE OF THE ARTICLE. EVERYBODY, JUST PICK ANY ONE ARTICLE FROM THIS LIST FOR YOUR OCTOBER 28 REVIEW. YOU WILL REPEAT THE SAME PROCESS FOR YOUR REVIEWS ON CENTRAL AMERICA/THE CARIBBEAN, AND A SOUTH AMERICAN NATION. THESE ARTICLES RANGE IN DATE FROM FEBRUARY 2019 TO SEPTEMBER 2022.
US FOREIGN POLICY, BORDER ISSUES AND LATINX COMMUNITIES
A LOVE LETTER TO INDIGENOUS BLACKNESS (SEPT. 2021)A Love Letter to Indigenous Blackness
Garifuna women in New York City working to preserve life, culture, and history across borders and generations are part of a powerful lineage of resistance to anti-Blackness.
September 13, 2021
Paul Joseph López Oro
A Garifuna ritual gathering to honor the ancestors at Orchard Beach in the Bronx, New York, June 2017. (Paul Joseph López Oro)
This piece appeared in the Fall 2021 issue of NACLA’s quarterly print magazine, the NACLAReport. Subscribein print today!
Mirtha Colón. Janel Martinez. Aida Lambert. Tania Molina. Carla Garcia. Tola Guerrero. Karen Blanco. Miriam Miranda. Ofelia Bernandez. Olga Nuñez. Luz Solis. Siria Alvarez. Isha Sumner. Sulma Arzu-Brown. Dilma Suazo-Gordon. Isidra Sabio. These are just some names of Garifuna women whose hemispheric political labor highlights a transgenerational and transnational tradition of preserving Garifuna life. Garifuna women are the very foundation of conjuring, mobilizing, and safeguarding Garifuna ancestral memory, rituals, language, and oral histories—all embodied histories of knowledge production—across generations and national boundaries. Some of these Garifuna women live in New York City, and some of them live in Central America’s Caribbean coasts. Some have never been to Central America, but their family’s nostalgia remains with them.
Garifuna life is matrifocal. Garifuna women are not simply the head of the household, but they are also at the center of organizing and governing every family structure, which extends beyond biological kinship. This is not a uniquely Garifuna experience. Throughout the African diaspora in the Americas, Black women are often the head of the household. Especially if we consider non-heteronormative notions of family and kinship, Black women have been at the forefront of preserving and protecting Black life over centuries, as anthropologists Christen A. Smith and Keisha-Khan Y. Perry have documented. However, a matrifocal or matrilineal society does not dismantle misogynoir, patriarchy, racial capitalism, and anti-Blackness. I write this matrilineal love letter to honor, celebrate, and center Garifuna women’s political, intellectual, spiritual, cultural, and knowledge producing labor that often goes unseen, uncited, or undervalued in a world that remains heteropatriarchal and anti-Black.
As shipwrecked enslaved West Africans and Carib and Arawak peoples, Garinagu were born from marronage and resistance to European colonialism, which marks them as maroon Indigenous Blacks.Garinagu, or Garifuna as they are popularly known, are Black Indigenous peoples whose ethnogenesis lies in 15th century St. Vincent, an island in the Lesser Antilles. As shipwrecked enslaved West Africans and Carib and Arawak peoples, Garinagu were born from marronage and resistance to European colonialism, which marks them as maroon Indigenous Blacks. In 1797, British colonial forces exiled Garinagu to the Bay Islands of Honduras, sparking subsequent migrations to Belize, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and mainland Honduras. By the mid-20th century, the decline of the United Fruit Company’s banana plantation economy on the Caribbean coast, combined with the legacy of centuries of anti-Black racism and land dispossession, ignited the first major wave of Garifuna transnational migrations. Beginning in the 1950s, these communities settled in major U.S. port cities such as New Orleans, New York, Chicago, Houston, San Francisco, Miami, and Los Angeles. Today, government corruption, state violence, dire economic conditions, gang and drug-trafficking crime, and persistent anti-Blackness continue to propel Garifuna to cross the U.S.-Mexico border. In recent years, southern U.S. cities such as Houston, Atlanta, Tampa, and Charlotte have become homes to Garifuna Central Americans.
Garinagu peoples are simultaneously Caribbean and Central American, as well as Black and Indigenous. Yet, in Central America, Blackness and geography are intrinsically entangled with histories of Spanish colonialism, U.S. imperialism, and centuries of anti-Black racism, consolidated in the nationalist racist myth of mestizaje. Mestizaje, as political theorist Juliet Hooker explains, emerged as a racial discourse in the early 20th century to distinguish Latin America’s imagined racial democracy from U.S. Jim Crow apartheid amid a broader critique of U.S. imperialism in the hemisphere. As an imagined racial mixture and mythical racial sameness bounded by nationalism, Central American mestizaje relegates, alienates, and ascribes Blackness to the Caribbean coast, erasing centuries of Black folks living in the interior and Pacific coasts.
In this way, mestizaje is a racial project in opposition to and in negation of Blackness. The Caribbean coast is understood to be removed from the national public spaces of mestizo governance in the capital cities of Managua or Tegucigalpa in Nicaragua and Honduras, respectively. This positions Central American Blackness as coming from elsewhere, rather than already always present prior to the formation of the Republics. More recently, what Charles R. Hale refers to as neoliberal multiculturalism constructs Blackness in Central America as a folkloric caricature for tourist and popular culture consumption, as Christopher Loperena has observed.
At the same time, Blackness and Indigeneity are understood in the Americas as mutually exclusive racial categories. Garifuna folks are persistently constructed as an anthropological puzzle, as anthropologist Mark Anderson has noted, because of their seemingly contradictory identity as simultaneously Black Indigenous peoples. As Black queer feminist theorist Tiffany Lethabo King writes in her 2019 book The Black Shoals, “Genocide and slavery do not have an edge.” Indeed, the articulation of Indigenous Blackness is not unique to Garifuna, as there are several communities of African descent throughout the Americas whose Indigenous ancestry and lineage shape their political consciousness as Black Indigenous. These include the Gullah/Geechee people of the southeastern U.S. coast, the Seminoles historically of Florida and forcibly removed to Oklahoma, quilombolas in Brazil, Jamaican maroons, and inhabitants of palenques or “free towns” in Colombia, among others.
Within U.S. Latinidad, singular narratives of Latin American and Caribbean identity also render Blackness invisible.In the United States, talk of Central America conjures a set of racial and political imaginaries that center mestizos, Indigenous cultures, revolutionary movements, civil wars, and U.S. occupations. These associations eclipse a discussion of race and racism in the region and its diasporas. Within U.S. Latinidad, singular narratives of Latin American and Caribbean identity also render Blackness invisible.Therefore, Black Central Americans—a term I use to invoke Blackness in a region of the Americas racialized as a non-Black space—doubly negotiate their invisibility on the isthmus and in their diasporas in the United States. Despite the extensive and rich history of Africans and their descendants in Central America, especially their presence and contributions prior to independence in 1821, Black history and Blackness remain alien to Central American nationhood, both in and outside of the isthmus.
These embodied histories of anti-Black racism, land dispossession, violence, and erasure shape how Black Central Americans who migrate to the United States negotiate, perform, and articulate their Blackness and Latinidad. In particular, since the late 1950s, Garifuna New Yorkers—the largest Garifuna population outside the Caribbean coasts—have been navigating transgenerational migrations, building cultural movements, and engaging in political mobilizations across multiple national and racial or ethnic borders.
In my research, my interlocutors—who mostly live or have lived in New York City— understand their Garinagu Black Indigeneity as rooted in the Caribbean, Central America’s Caribbean coasts, and the United States. They use multiple terms to describe their identities, including negro indígena (Indigenous Black), afroindígena or Afro-Indigenous, Black Indigenous, and Black Carib. These variations point to the multiplicity of geographies informing Garinagu racial identity formations. In Central America, Garinagu notions of (Black) Indigeneity are bound to land and cultural traditions: claiming Indigeneity is a political move to claim land rights and titles. In the United States, and more specifically in New York City, Garifuna folks use Indigeneity—that is, their Carib and Arawak lineage stemming from an imagined homeland in St. Vincent—as a marker of cultural difference within Blackness. My framing of hemispheric Indigenous Blackness thus comes directly from my interlocutors.
“Ain’t I Latina?”: Negotiating Central Americanness vis-à-vis AfroLatinidad
Aida Lambert, a Garifuna woman born and raised in Honduras, came to New York City in 1964. At the time, Central Americans, especially Garifuna folks, did not have much visibility in the ethnic pantheon of New York City’s Latinidad. Having arrived a few years prior to the economic collapse of the United Fruit Company, Lambert forms part of the second-largest migration of Garifuna to New York. Through her kin networks she arrived in Brooklyn and later moved to East Harlem with her children. In the mid-1980s, Lambert was a founding committee member of the Desfile de la Hispanidad, an annual Hispanic parade born from NuyoRicans and recent Puerto Rican migrants wanting to exhibit their culture, work ethic, and racial differences from their African American neighbors. Lambert’s involvement developed out of her language barriers with English-speaking Blacks and her cultural and linguistic bond with Puerto Ricans and Dominicans. In her autobiographical narration, “We Are Black Too: Experiences of a Honduran Garifuna,” she illustrates the complexity of experiences between African Americans and Spanish-speaking Black immigrants:
I have found that even though you are Black, the fact that you are Latina means to them [African Americans] that you are of another race…Even at home, in Honduras, our Garifuna culture, and our language, is losing ground and becoming less and less familiar. And here it is even more so. My own children, as much as I try to keep the culture alive, they have their own lives and often forget whatever they learn. Not to mention my grandchildren, who were born here. I warn them about my experiences with African Americans, but they play with them, are influenced by them, and join them. They make friends with them, they identify with them, in the way they dress, and talk, and the music they listen to. And what can I do, I have to let them choose their own culture preferences.
Lambert’s testimonio is telling of her generation of Garifuna Honduran immigrants and their engagement and inclusion into Puerto Rican and Dominican social mobility.
The generations of Garifuna New Yorkers following Lambert’s arrival to Brooklyn and Harlem negotiate Latinidad in multiple ways: they simultaneously reject and interject into Latinidad, a marker that makes Garifuna Blackness distinct from African Americans, while also using Garifunaness to distance themselves from mestizo Latinidad and AfroLatinidad. Lambert’s feeling of rejection by Black Americans and acceptance by Puerto Ricans is a significant memory for a number of reasons, particularly because Garifuna Central Americans migrate to the United States at the intersections of anti-Black racism, non-democratic governments, and economic instability.
Read the rest of this article here, available open access for a limited time. View the full table of contents of the Fall 2021 NACLA Report here.

This writing should be in your own words – tell me using your own thoughts and ideas of what the article was about.

1>>I need a 500 Words WORD document based in the FILES I submitted. 2>>Write (or revise if you submitted to the Article Synopsis Paper – Draft Review) a paper with at least 500 words (include a word count at the top of your page) summarizing and paraphrasing what the article is about (without copying or plagiarizing). This writing should be in your own words – tell me using your own thoughts and ideas of what the article was about.
If you need to use the exact words from the article to properly explain something, use quotation marks and use an APA in-text citation. On a second page, with the title “References” include a full APA citation for your article. 3>> USE CITATIONS AND REFERENCES FOR SURE.

Which of the technologies discussed might you be willing to accept having performed on you?

Write a paper with at least 350 words (include a word count at the top of your page) reflecting your thinking about Medical Technology. Which developments in the field of medical technology interested you most? Which technologies do you think are most beneficial to society? Which of the technologies discussed might you be willing to accept having performed on you? Which technologies would you refuse? Why?
If you use or copy any ideas that are not your own to help support your writing, be sure to summarize that person’s ideas or put their exact words in quotation marks and use an APA in-text citation. On a second sheet at the end of your reflection paper, called “References,” add an APA reference for your source. If you are unsure how this should look, see the Weekly Reflection Example Paper.
Write: Week 10 Reflection – Medical Technology
Ends Oct 29, 2022 11:59 PM

Write a paper with at least 350 words (include a word count at the top of your page) reflecting your thinking about medical technology.

Write a paper with at least 350 words (include a word count at the top of your page) reflecting your thinking about Medical Technology. Which developments in the field of medical technology interested you most? Which technologies do you think are most beneficial to society? Which of the technologies discussed might you be willing to accept having performed on you? Which technologies would you refuse? Why?
If you use or copy any ideas that are not your own to help support your writing, be sure to summarize that person’s ideas or put their exact words in quotation marks and use an APA in-text citation. On a second sheet at the end of your reflection paper, called “References,” add an APA reference for your source. If you are unsure how this should look, see the Weekly Reflection Example Paper.
Write: Week 10 Reflection – Medical Technology
Ends Oct 29, 2022 11:59 PM

How is your model similar to reality and how is your model different?

This is a practical demonstration that illustrates how the universe expands.
To submit a complete activity:
Download this file The expansion of the universe activity.docx and complete the activity:
Collect the data following the experimental procedure.
Answer the questions
Attached a picture of your balloon that shows your name and the galaxies on the balloon
Once you have added all the information, save this document as pdf, name it as: Name_lastname_universeassignment.pdf and submit it in CANVAS.
The expansion of the universe activity
This is a practical demonstration that illustrates how the universe expands.
To submit a complete activity:
1- Collect the data following the experimental procedure.
2- Answer the questions
3- Attached a picture of your balloon that shows your name and the galaxies on the balloon
4- Once you have added all the information, save this document as pdf, name it as: Name_lastname_universeassignment.pdf and submit it in CANVAS.
Background information:
The universe is getting bigger and bigger. Astronomers believe that the universe is expanding – that all points in the universe are getting farther apart all the time. It’s not that stars and galaxies are getting bigger; rather, the space between all objects is expanding with time.
In the 1920s astronomer Edwin Hubble used the red shift of the spectra of stars and by carefully observing the light from galaxies at different distances from Earth, he determined that the farther something was from Earth, the faster it seemed to be moving away. This relationship has become known as Hubble’s Law, and it’s just one piece of a bigger puzzle known as the Big Bang theory. Developed over many years and by many people, the theory states that about 15 billion years ago the universe was compressed into an infinitely small space, known as the primordial atom. It exploded in a sudden burst of energy and created a small, super dense, extremely hot universe that began to expand in all directions. Over time things cooled, and tiny bits of matter clumped together to form stars and galaxies. As a result of this explosion, all of these objects are still moving away from each other. In this experiment, you’ll create a simple model to learn how the universe expands over time.
For additional information on the experiment watch this video: The Center Of The Universe
The Center Of The Universe
By FFreeThinker
Materials
Balloon
Marker
String
Ruler or tape measure
Procedure
1) Inflate your balloon until it is about 10 cm in diameter, but do not tie the end.
2) Using the marker, make six dots on the balloon in widely scattered locations. Label one dot “home” and the others A-E.
3) Using your tape measure (or string & ruler), determine the circumference of the balloon. Record the value for the circumference in the table as “Balloon Circumference # 1=.”
4) Without letting air out of the balloon, use the string and a ruler to measure the distance from “home” to each dot. Record the distances in table # 1.” Repeat each measure 2 more times and calculate the average.
5) Inflate the balloon so that its diameter is about 10 cm bigger (≈ 20 cm total). Determine the circumference of the balloon. Record the circumference in the table as “Balloon Circumference # 2=.”
6) Measure the distances to each of the dots and the balloon’s circumference. Record these measurements in table # 2″. Repeat your measurements two more times and calculate the average value for each measure.
7) For the last time, inflate the balloon 10 cm bigger (≈ 30 cm total). Record the circumference in the table as “Balloon Circumference # 3=.”
8) Measure the distances to each of the dots and the balloon’s circumference. Record these measurements as in table #3. Repeat your measurements as before.
9) Write your name on the balloon and take a picture.
Circumference # 1= _______________
Table #1
Distance
Home to A (cm)
Distance
Home to B (cm)
Distance
Home to C (cm)
Distance
Home to D (cm)
Distance
Home to E (cm)
Measure
MeasureRepeat 1
Measure Repeat 2
Average
Circumference # 2= _______________
Table #2
Distance
Home to A (cm)
Distance
Home to B (cm)
Distance
Home to C (cm)
Distance
Home to D (cm)
Distance
Home to E (cm)
Measure
Measure Repeat 1
Measure Repeat 2
Average
Circumference # 3= _______________
Table #3
Distance
Home to A (cm)
Distance
Home to B (cm)
Distance
Home to C (cm)
Distance
Home to D (cm)
Distance
Home to E (cm)
Measure
Measure Repeat 1
Measure Repeat 2
Average
Answer the following questions:
1. How did the distance from the “home” dot to each of the other galaxies change each time you inflated the balloon? (reference your data and what the data indicates)
2. Which galaxies move the greatest distance , the near “home” or those farther? (reference your data and what the data indicates)
3. If you deflate the balloon completely, simulating the beginning of the expansion of the Universe, what happen to all the galaxies? What would this point in your model represent?
4. How is your model similar to reality and how is your model different?